The Evidence Base

Latest Updates

Credit Suisse (2016) The Value of Diversity

Global equity research shows a basket of 270 companies supporting LGBT employees outperforms other stock indices.

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Economist Intelligence Unit (2016) Pride and Prejudice

Published in conjunction with The Economist hosting its inaugural ‘Pride and Prejudice Summit’ – a global event on LGBT rights.

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Centre for Talent Innovation (2016) Out in the World [Paywall]

Extensive analysis of the challenge of how global companies can support LGBT employees, specifically in jurisdictions hostile to LGBT rights

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LGBT Business Forum (2015) LGBTQ Market and Workplace Report

In Poland, the LGBT Business Forum has published its second LGBTQ Market and Workplace Report which looks at interaction with brands.

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Out Now Global (2015), LGBT Diversity: Show Me The Business Case report

Global LGBT research study asked over 100,000 LGBT people in 20 countries their views on what is happening in their own workplaces.

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M.V. Lee Badgett, (2014) The Economic Costs Of Homophobia & Exclusion Of LGBT People

This case study of India estimates losses to the local economy from lost productivity associated with anti-LGBT law range from 0.1% to 1.4% of GDP

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This report brings together a broad base of research undertaken from different perspectives and with different geographical foci, and identifies themes that are globally relevant. The report is intended to set out the evidence that will empower those arguing against LGB&T discrimination, wherever it exists in the world.

The evidence base drawn together between January and August 2015 for this report is not a finished product but something that will keep growing and hopefully form the basis of much fruitful discussions around the world. Open for Business would therefore like to encourage anyone that knows of or is producing additional evidence that will help strengthen the case for LGB&T inclusion to get in touch.

A summary of the most recent additions to the evidence base has been compiled for you to download here.


This set of sources relate directly to the economic opportunities associated with LGB&T inclusion and the business risks of operating in countries with anti-LGB&T legislation.

American Civil Liberties Union (2007), Working in the Shadows: Ending Employment Discrimination for LGBT Americans, available at:

Badgett, M.V. L. (2014), The economic cost of stigma and the exclusion of LGBT people: a case study of India, Washington, DC: World Bank Group, available at:

Brenner, B.R., Lyons, H.Z., and Fassinger, R.E. (2010), Can heterosexism harm organizations? Predicting the perceived organizational citizenship behaviors of gay and lesbian employee, The Career Development Quarterly, 58

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Centre for American Progress (2012), The Costly business for Discrimination: The Economic costs of discrimination and the financial benefits of gay and transgender equality in the workplace, available at:

Centre for Talent Innovation (2013), The Power of “Out” 2.0: LGBT in the Workplace, available at:

Centre for Talent Innovation (2011), The Power of “Out”: LGBT in the Workplace, available at:

Driscoll, J.M., Kelley, F.A., and Fassinger, R.E. (1996), Lesbian identity and disclosure in the workplace: Relation to occupational stress and satisfaction, Journal of Vocational Behavior

Everly, B., Shih, M.J., and Ho, G.C. (2012), Don’t ask, don’t tell? Does disclosure of gay identity affect partner performance? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48 (1)

Griffith, K.H., and Hebl, M.R. (2002), The disclosure dilemma for gay men and lesbians: “Coming out” at work, Journal of Applied Psychology

Guasp, A., and Balfour, J. (2008), Peak performance: Gay people and productivity, London: Stonewall

Harris Interactive / Witeck-Combs Communications (2006), 5th Annual Out & Equal Survey, ‘Majority of Americans: Companies not government should decide benefits offered to same-sex employees’ (Press release title), available at:—not-federal-or-state-policy-designed-to-ban-gay-marriage-56492537.html

Human Rights Campaign (2014), The Cost of the Closet and the Rewards of Inclusion, available at:

Human Rights Campaign Foundation (2009), Degrees of Equality: A National Study Examining Workplace Climate for LGBT Employees, available at:

ILGA (2015), State-Sponsored Homophobia – A World Survey of Laws: criminalization, protection and recognition of same-sex love, available at:

Munoz, C.S. (2005). A multi-level examination of career barriers for sexual minority employees, Unpublished doctoral dissertation

Oakenfull, G.W. (2013), What Matters: Factors Influencing Gay Consumers’ Evaluations of ‘Gay-Friendly’ Corporate Activities, Journal of Public Policy & Marketing Vol. 32 (Special Issue), 79–89, American Marketing Association, available at:

Out Now Global (2015), LGBT 2020 Study: LGBT diversity – Show me the business case, available at:

Out on the Street (2014), Europe 2014 LGBT Leadership Summit Learnings Summation

Out on the Street (2013), Thinking Outside the Closet: How Leaders Can Leverage the LGBT Talent Opportunity,

Smith, N.G., and Ingram, K.M. (2004), Workplace heterosexism and adjustment among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: The role of unsupportive social interactions, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol 51(1), 57-67

Stonewall (2014), Global Values – Getting started with LGB equality worldwide, available at:

The Williams Institute (2013), The Business Impact of LBT-supportive Workplace Policies, available at:

The Williams Institute (2011), Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies, available at:

USAID and The Williams Institute (2014), The relationship between LGBT inclusion and Economic Development: An analysis of Emerging Economies, available at:

Waldo, C.R. (1999), Working in a majority context: A structural model of heterosexism as minority stress in the workplace, Journal of Counseling Psychology

The broader evidence base

Acs, Z., et al. (2004), The Missing Link: The Knowledge Filter and Entrepreneurship in Endogenous Growth, Discussion Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy

Action Aid (2009), Hate crimes: the rise of ‘corrective’ rape in South Africa, available at:

Adams, J.S. (1965) Injustice in Social Change, in L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267-299). New York: Academic Press

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Alderfer, C. (1972), Existence, Relatedness and Growth, New York: Free Press, American Vocational Association

Armstrong, C. et al. (2010), The impact of diversity and equality management on firm performance: Beyond high performance work systems, Human Resource Management, Vol. 49, Issue 6

Bantel, K., and Jackson, S. (1989), Top management and innovations in banking: Does the composition of the team make a difference? Strategic Management Journal, 10, 107–124

Bellini, E., Ottaviano, G. I., Pinelli, D. and Prarolo, G. (2008), Cultural Diversity and Economic Performance: Evidence from European Regions, HWWI Research Papers

Burrows, M. (2015), The Emerging Global Middle Class—So What?, The Washington Quarterly, Spring, 38:1 pp. 7–22, available at:

Centre for American Progress (2015), Millennials Overwhelmingly Support Comprehensive LGBT Nondiscrimination Protections, available at:

Community Business (2014), Diversity & Inclusion: Building the Business Case – Stories From India, available at:

Commission for Racial Equality (1995), ‘Racial Equality means Quality’ a standard for racial equality for local government in England and Wales’, London

DiTomaso, N., Post, C., and Parks-Yancy, R. (2007), Workforce Diversity and Inequality: Power, Status, and Numbers, Annual Review of Sociology 33

Deloitte (2015), Global Human Capital Trends 2015 – Leading in the new world of work, available at:

Deloitte (2014), Foreign Direct Investment and Inclusive Growth – the impacts on social progress, available at:

Deloitte (2013), Uncovering talent: A new model of inclusion, available at:

Deloitte and the Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission (2012), Waiter, is that inclusion in my soup? A new recipe to improve business performance, available at:

Department for Business, Innovation & Skills (2013), The business case for equality and diversity: a survey of the academic literature, available at:

Enchautegui-de-Jesús, N. et al. (2006), Well-being in the Context of Workplace Diversity, Journal of Community Psychology, 34: 211–23

EY (2015), Millennials: “Generation Go” infographic, available at:

Florida, R. (2014), The Global Map of Homophobia, City Lab, available at:

Florida, R. (2002), Entrepreneurship, Creativity, and Regional Development, Carnegie Mellon University

Florida, R. (2002), The Rise of the Creative Class: And How it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York: Perseus Book Group

Forbes Insights (2011), Global diversity and inclusion: Fostering Innovation through a diverse workforce, available at:

Gans, L.A. (1999), Inverts, Perverts, and Converts: Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy and Liability, The Boston University Public Interest Law Journal

Gallup (2013), State Of America’s Workplace Report, available at:

Gallup management Journal (2008), What is a great place to work? The twelve key dimensions that describe great workgroups, available at:

Hays Global Skills Index (2014), The Global Changing dynamics of the Global Skills Landscape:

Harvard Business Review (2013), How Diversity Can Drive Innovation, available at:

Harvard Business School (2006), Working Knowledge, Do I Dare Say Something?, available at:

Herring, C. (2009), Does Diversity Pay? Race, Gender, and the Business Case for Diversity, available at:

Hunter, J.E.; Schmidt, F.L. & Judiesch, M.K. (1990), Individual Differences in Output Variability as a Function of Job Complexity, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 75, No. 1, 28-42

Jordan, K.M., and Deluty, R.H. (2008), Coming out for lesbian women, Journal of Homosexuality, 35(2), 41–63

Judge, T.A., Locke, E.A.; Durham, C.C. (1997), The dispositional causes of job satisfaction: A core evaluations approach, Research in Organizational Behavior, 19, 151-188

Kellogg Insight (2010), Better Decisions Through Diversity, available at:

Krugman, P. (1994), The Age of Diminishing Expectations, MIT Press

Lipton, M. (2003), Guiding Growth: How Vision Keeps Companies on Course, Harvard University Press

Level Playing Field Institute (2007), The Cost of Employee Turnover Due Solely to Unfairness in the Workplace, available at:

Mannix, E. (2009), What Differences Make a Difference? The Promise and Reality of Diverse Teams in Organizations, available at:;6/2/31

McKinsey & Company (2015), Why Diversity Matters, available at:

McKinsey & Company (2012), Preparing for a New Era of Work, available at:

McKinsey & Company (2011), Urban World: Mapping the economic power of cities, available at:

McKinsey & Company (2007), Women Matter: Gender diversity, a corporate performance driver, available at:

Naudé, W. (2011), Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, Palgrave Macmillan

Naudé, W. (2011), Entrepreneurs and economic development, United Nations University, available at:

Nanus, B. (1996), Visionary leadership (J-B US non-franchise leadership), San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

Neibuhr, A. (2006), Migration and innovation: Does cultural diversity matter for regional R&D activity? HWWI Research Paper 3-1

Noland, M. (2004), Popular Attitudes, Globalization, and Risk, Institute for International Economics, available at:

Noland, M. and Pack, H. (2004), Islam, Globalization, and Economic Performance in the Middle East, available at:

Podsakoff, N.P., et al. (2009), Individual- and organizational level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis, Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1):122-41

PwC (2013), Millennials value greater flexibility, appreciation, team collaboration and global opportunities, available at:

PwC (2104), Skills gap is hampering businesses’ recruitment efforts, available at:

Ottaviano, G. I. and Peri, G. (2004), Cities and Cultures, FEEM Working Paper 92

Organ, D.W., Podsakoff, P.M., and MacKenzie, S.B. (2006), Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Pew Research Center (2015), Changing Attitudes on Gay Marriage: Public Opinion, available at:

Pew Research Centre (2015), Little change in Opinion on Same-sex Marriage, U.S. Politics & Policy, available at:

Pew Research Centre (2013), Eastern and Western Europe divided over gay marriage, homosexuality, available at:

Pew Research Center (2009), The Global Middle Class: Views on Democracy, Religion, Values, and Life Satisfaction in Emerging Nations, Pew Global Attitudes Project, available at:

Porter, L.W. & Lawler, E. E. (1968) Managerial Attitudes & Performance, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Jun., 1968), pp. 177-180

Rindermann, H., Sailer, M., and Thompson, J. (2009), The impact of smart fractions, cognitive ability of politicians and average competence of peoples on social development, International Research Association for Talent Development and Excellence, available at:

Reagans, R., and Zuckerman, E. (2001), Networks, diversity and productivity: The social capital of corporate R&D teams, Organization Science, 12, No.4, available at:

Robinson, G. and Dechant, K. (1997), Building a business case for diversity, Academy of Management Executive (1993-2005), available at:

Schorr, J. (2013), Co-branding the cooperation of places: Lessons from the first joint German-Sino nation brand initiative, City branding and Diplomacy, available at:

Tatli, A. and Özbilgin, M. F. (2007), Diversity management as calling: Sorry, it’s the wrong number!, in Koall, I. Bruchhagen, V. and Höher, F.(Eds.), Diversity Outlooks, LIT-Verlag, Münster

The Boston Consulting Group (2014), How Millennials Are Changing the Face of Marketing Forever, available at:

The Lancet (2014), Criminalising homosexuality threatens the fight against HIV/AIDS, available at:

Wedemeier, J. (2009), Creative Cities and the Concept of Diversity, HWWI Research

World Economic Forum (2014), How to reverse the brain drain, Agenda blog, available at:

YPulse (2014), Global Millennials: Around the World in Trends, available at:

Data points used to support specific propositions

Freedom House (2013), Freedom of the World, available at:

GILRHO (1980-2014) – Global Index on Legal Recognition of Homosexual Orientation – metric of eight categories of legal protection / on a scale of 0-8 where 8 is the highest level of legal protection, available at:

Harris Interactive (2010), The Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender (GLBT) Population At-A-Glance, available at:

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Human Rights Campaign HRC (2015), Corporate Equality – rating American workplaces on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender equality, available at:

Millennial Week (2014), Millennial: By the Numbers, available at:

OECD (2013), World Migration in Figures, available at:

Tiny Pulse (2015), Best Industry Ranking: Employee Engagement & Satisfaction Across Industries, available at:

Data used for additional analysis within the report

Free to Marry, ‘The freedom to marry internationally’: (last updated June 2015)

Gallup World Poll (2013), ‘Nearly 3 in 10 Worldwide See Their Areas as Good for Gays’, available at:

ILGA (2015), State-Sponsored Homophobia – A World Survey of Laws: criminalization, protection and recognition of same-sex love, lists 75 countries with criminal laws against sexual activity by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or intersex people (LGBTIs), available at:

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Stonewall (2015), Global Workplace Equality Index, available at:

Transparency International (2014), Corruption Perceptions Index 2014: Results, available at:

Transparency International (2013), Transparency In Corporate Reporting: Assessing Emerging Market Multinationals – the study assessed the transparency of corporate reporting by 100 major emerging market companies comprising the list of ‘Global Challengers 2011’, available at:

News and media publications

This set of media coverage ranges from mainstream news to trade publications and corporate blog posts, providing context and further evidence around LGB&T inclusion as a concern for businesses and economies around the world.

Affinity Magazine (2014), IBM celebrates 45 years of valuing supplier diversity, available at:

Al Jazeera America (2014), Exiled from home, Nigeria’s gay community builds new life in US, available at:

AT&T (2014), A Time for Pride and Equality, AT&T Consumer blog, available at:

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BBC News (2014), Homophobia spreads in Russian media, available at:

Bloomberg Business (2014), Tim Cook Speaks Up, available at:

Business Day Live (2014), SA companies ill prepared for African homophobia, available at:

Buzzfeed LGBT (2014), Intel, Yelp Join Companies Urging Arizona Governor to Veto Anti-LGBT Bill, available at:

Channel 4 (2014), Gays are ‘vermin’, says Gambian president, available at:

CNBC (2014), Supporting LGBT: Business can’t afford inequality, available at:

CNBC (2014), AT&T CEO on condemnation of Russia’s anti-gay law, available at:

CNN (2014), Ugandan tabloid prints list of ‘homosexuals’, available at:

CNN (2014), Uganda president: Homosexuals are ‘disgusting’, available at:

Forbes (2014), What Millennials Want In The Workplace (And Why You Should Start Giving It To Them) – reports on The Intelligence Group study, available at:

Forbes (2013), Howard Schultz to Anti-Gay-Marriage Starbucks Shareholder: ‘You Can Sell Your Shares’, available at:

Gay Star Business (2015), Study estimates LGBT market in US is worth $844billion, available at:

HR Magazine (2014), IBM leads talks to tackle India’s gay sex ban, available at:

HR Magazine (2011), Diversity is a no-brainer says Bank of America, available at:

Mail Online (2014), Putin’s great Russian brain-drain: Number of professionals quitting country soars amid Crimea and Ukraine Crisis, available at:

Mashable UK (2015), Exclusive: Tim Cook says lack of diversity in tech is ‘our fault’, available at:

Pink News (2012), Barclays discusses anti-gay bill with Ugandan officials, available at:

PR Newswire (2014), Delta Issues Statement on Proposed Legislation, available at:

REF World (2014), UN warns against inciting hatred after Ugandan newspaper publishes names of gays, available at:

Reuters (2014), Gambia’s Jammeh calls gays ‘vermin’, says to fight like mosquitoes, available at:

SciDev Net (2014), Uganda’s anti-gay law may threaten its research, available at:

The Daily Beast (2014), Gay rights fight: Bullies love to play the victim, available at:

The Economist (2014), Gay people’s rights “Tainting love”, available at:

The Economist (2011), Corrosive corruption, Graphic detail blog, available at:

The Economist (2009), A vicious intolerance, available at:

The Financial Times (2014), Why Innovation Matters to Investors, available at:

The Guardian (2015), Out and abroad: businesses have a responsibility to support gay staff, available at:

The Guardian (2013), Coke’s Olympics backlash: the rising bar for corporate action, available at:

The Times of India (2012), India Inc creates inclusive HR policies for LGBT community, available at:

The Wall Street Journal India (2014), Homophobia May Cost India’s Economy Billions of Dollars, India Real Time blog, available at:

The Wall Street Journal (2013), Tim Cook: “Workplace Equality Is Good for Business”, available at:

The Washington Post (2012), Google: ‘Legalize Love’ campaign isn’t about gay marriage, available at:

Viacom blog (2012), The Next Normal: An Unprecedented Look At Millennials Worldwide, avaialbe at:

Vice News (2015), Gambian President Says He Will Slit Gay Men’s Throats in Public Speech, available at: